The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) has recently released its Threat Landscape report for 2023 [1] [2], highlighting the increasing cyber threats faced by the EU [1], particularly in relation to the upcoming 2024 European elections [1].


The report reveals that from July 2022 to June 2023, there were approximately 2580 recorded cyber incidents, with 220 incidents specifically targeting multiple EU Member States [2]. The most affected sectors were public administrations and health, although a single event often had repercussions across multiple sectors. State-nexus actors [1] [2] [3], cybercriminals [2], and hacktivists focused on key individuals such as politicians, government officials [1] [2] [3], journalists [1] [2] [3], and activists [1] [2] [3]. Their primary methods included spear-phishing emails and social networks. The report also highlights the use of innovative strategies such as trojanising software packages and exploiting vulnerabilities in cloud infrastructure. Ransomware and DDoS attacks were identified as the most prevalent threats. Additionally, the report draws attention to the misuse of AI-powered tools [1], such as deep fakes and chatbots [1], in social engineering attacks and information manipulation campaigns [1]. These technologies enable highly realistic and targeted attacks [1], demanding increased awareness and preparedness from cybersecurity professionals and policymakers [1]. Furthermore, the report identifies a total of 24,690 vulnerabilities [2], indicating an increase from the previous reporting period [2]. The ENISA Threat Landscape report aims to provide strategic intelligence to decision-makers and security specialists [2], enabling them to defend against cyber threats, safeguard critical infrastructures [1], protect sensitive information [1], and preserve the integrity of democratic processes in the face of a complex and persistent cyber threat landscape [1].


The findings of the report underscore the urgent need for action to mitigate the growing cyber threats faced by the EU. It is crucial for decision-makers and security specialists to be aware of the evolving tactics employed by threat actors and to implement effective measures to counter these threats. The report’s emphasis on the misuse of AI-powered tools highlights the need for increased vigilance in detecting and preventing social engineering attacks and information manipulation campaigns. Furthermore, the identification of a significant increase in vulnerabilities calls for enhanced efforts in patching and securing systems. By addressing these challenges head-on, the EU can better protect critical infrastructures, safeguard sensitive information [1], and ensure the integrity of democratic processes in the face of an ever-evolving cyber threat landscape [1].