APIs play a crucial role in the cloud-first approach of enterprises [2], facilitating communication [2], data sharing [2] [6], and innovation [2]. However, as APIs become more pivotal [2], the strategies to secure them need to evolve [2]. This article explores the challenges and best practices for API security in the cloud.


APIs have expanded the enterprise risk profile [2], with 58% of respondents stating that they expand the attack surface [2]. Organizations often lack visibility into their APIs and struggle to understand the context between API activity [2], user behaviors [2], and data flows [2]. Traditional protective measures like Web application firewalls are ill-suited for API vulnerabilities [2]. To navigate this securely [2], organizations should invest in comprehensive API discovery and governance solutions [2], understand API context [2], adopt a collaborative approach to security [2], and establish adaptable API security strategies [2].

API security is a major concern for organizations [3], as many are unaware of the extent of API risk [3]. A survey found that 60% of organizations have experienced API-related breaches in the past two years [3], with 74% suffering from three or more breaches [3]. Financial loss and loss of intellectual property were the most severe consequences of these breaches [3]. API risks are expected to increase in the future [3], with 61% of respondents anticipating this [2] [3]. One of the biggest challenges is API sprawl [3], where many APIs are spread across different locations and managed by different teams [3]. The responsibility for API security is unclear [3], with roles like CISO/CSO [3], CIO/CTO [3], and Head of Quality Assurance all being considered [3]. Only 43% of organizations have policies and procedures in place to manage APIs [3], and only 44% are highly effective in ensuring consistency across the organization [3]. A zero-trust architecture is recommended for API security [3], as traditional perimeter-based solutions are ineffective. 40% of organizations have adopted a Zero Trust framework [3], with 55% including API security in their strategy [3]. The maturity of most organizations’ Zero Trust strategy is at the early or middle adoption stages [3]. API security is crucial [3] [5] [6], as APIs are potential entry points for compromise [3]. The embrace of Zero Trust security strategies is a positive step [3], but the need to bolster security measures is becoming more pronounced as API risks are expected to surge in the future [3].

Best practices for API security include installing an API gateway [1], implementing authentication and authorization protocols [1], using encryption protocols like HTTPS [1], conducting security testing [1], monitoring and patching APIs regularly [1], keeping audit logs [1], and implementing quotas and throttling [1]. With the increasing reliance on APIs in the age of digital transformation [1], API security strategies are crucial for enterprise data security [1].

Isabelle Mauny [6], Field CTO and co-founder at 42Crunch [6], emphasized the importance of API security in her talks at API World [6]. She highlighted the need to focus on the recently updated OWASP API Top 10 during the design phase to avoid security incidents [6]. Mauny shared examples of API vulnerabilities [6], such as a microbrewery’s API allowing hackers to print free beer coupons and a university’s access control system lacking authorization [6]. Lack of governance and training contribute to the challenges organizations face in managing APIs [6].

Patrick Sullivan [6], CTO of Security Strategy at Akamai [6], also stressed the need to address API security using the OWASP API Top 10 [6]. Traditional application security approaches are not sufficient for APIs [6], as they can be exploited for data scraping [6], network mapping [6], and facilitating denial-of-service attacks [6]. Unlike applications [1] [2] [6], APIs do not assume the responsibility of securing themselves [6], making it crucial for developers to handle authorization and security aspects through code [6].

Dan Barahona [6], Founder of APIsec [6], highlighted the importance of thorough testing in API security [6]. Testing should not only focus on expected behavior but also consider unexpected scenarios and potential vulnerabilities [6]. Barahona shared examples of API security flaws [6], including incidents at Coinbase [6], Duolingo [6], and Peloton [6]. The goal of API security is to identify and address vulnerabilities before they are exploited [6]. Barahona recommended consistent and automated testing of unintended uses [6]. He also provided a list of best practices for API security [6], including governance [2] [6], understanding the API ecosystem [6], collaboration between security and development teams [6], comprehensive API documentation [6], training for API developers [6], centralized API management [6], validation of everything [6], avoiding reliance on user interfaces for security [6], ensuring authentication is separate from authorization [6], and automating pre-production testing whenever possible [6].

API security in the cloud presents several challenges for organizations [4]. One major challenge is the exposure of sensitive data [4], as APIs often handle valuable information that can be targeted by attackers [4]. To mitigate this risk [4], robust authentication and authorization mechanisms should be implemented [4]. Another challenge is the complexity of API ecosystems [4], as organizations rely on multiple APIs from different providers [4], each with their own security protocols and vulnerabilities [4]. Continuous monitoring and threat detection are necessary to address this complexity [4]. The lack of standardized security practices across cloud providers is also a challenge [4], requiring organizations to establish comprehensive API security strategies [4]. Finally [4], human error [4], such as misconfigurations and weak passwords [4], can inadvertently expose APIs to attacks [4]. Employee training and awareness programs are essential to address this human factor [4]. By addressing these challenges [4], organizations can leverage the benefits of APIs in the cloud while keeping their data and systems secure [4].


API security is a critical concern for organizations [3], with the potential for financial loss, intellectual property theft [3], and breaches [5]. The increasing reliance on APIs and the complexity of API ecosystems pose challenges that require comprehensive security strategies. Best practices [1] [5] [6], such as installing an API gateway, implementing authentication and encryption protocols [1], conducting regular security testing, and monitoring APIs, are essential for mitigating risks. The adoption of a Zero Trust framework and adherence to the OWASP API Top 10 can further enhance API security. By addressing these challenges and implementing robust security measures, organizations can protect their data and systems in the age of digital transformation.


[1] https://www.ibm.com/blog/api-security-best-practices/
[2] https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/sky-s-the-limit-but-what-about-api-security-challenges-in-the-cloud-first-era
[3] https://www.devopsdigest.com/state-of-api-security-2023
[4] https://platodata.network/platowire/challenges-in-ensuring-api-security-in-the-cloud-first-era/
[5] https://itechsoul.com/best-practices-for-api-security/
[6] https://blog.gitguardian.com/api-world-2023/