Starting in mid-2024 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5], Amazon Web Services (AWS) will implement multi-factor authentication (MFA) for all privileged accounts [6], including root users of AWS Organization accounts [1]. This decision is based on the understanding that passwords alone are insufficient for protecting important accounts. MFA offers a higher level of security and is more forgiving than passwords alone [5].


MFA is best implemented using a combination of a password and a hardware key, such as a security key that adheres to the FIDO U2F or FIDO2/WebAuthn standards [5]. If a hardware key is not available [5], using an app that sends notifications to a phone is the next best option [5]. Another alternative is using a code from an app on a phone, while the least secure option is using a code sent via SMS [5]. However, even the least secure option still provides a good level of security [5].

AWS will prompt customers signing into the AWS Management Console with the root user of an AWS Organizations management account to use MFA [2] [4] [6]. Furthermore, AWS plans to expand this requirement to include users with lower access privileges and introduce features that facilitate the adoption and management of MFA at scale.

To encourage MFA adoption [2] [4], AWS offers free security keys [2] [3] [4], virtual authenticator applications [1], and TOTP tokens [1]. Additionally, users can register multiple MFA devices per account root user or IAM user [6]. MFA plays a crucial role in mitigating the risks of phishing attacks, as valid credentials have been the primary initial access vector for cloud compromise in real-world incidents [6]. Failure to implement MFA leaves cloud assets vulnerable to unauthorized access and data breaches [3].

Amazon intends to notify users about the upcoming MFA requirement through various channels and recommends using phishing-resistant MFA technologies like security keys to protect against evolving threats [3]. This proactive approach reflects Amazon’s commitment to reducing security risks and safeguarding sensitive data stored within AWS services [3].


By enforcing MFA requirements [1], AWS aims to mitigate the risks of unauthorized access and strengthen the overall security of its cloud services [1]. The introduction of MFA for all privileged accounts, including root users of AWS Organization accounts [1], will have a significant impact on enhancing security measures. It is crucial for users to adopt MFA and take advantage of the free security options provided by AWS. This proactive approach aligns with Amazon’s commitment to reducing security risks and protecting sensitive data [3]. The future implications of this decision include improved protection against unauthorized access and data breaches, as well as the continued development of MFA technologies to address evolving threats.