Albania has recently been targeted by cyber attacks [1] [2] [4] [5], as reported by the country’s National Authority for Electronic Certification and Cyber Security (AKCESK) [2] [4] [5] [6]. These attacks have affected the Parliament and a telecommunications service provider [3]. The motive behind these attacks is believed to be Albania’s sheltering of members of the Iranian opposition group Mujahedeen-e-Khalq.


The cyber attacks in Albania have specifically targeted infrastructures that are not currently classified as critical or important information infrastructure. One of the affected entities is One Albania, a telecom firm with nearly 1.5 million subscribers. However, they have successfully managed the security incident without any disruptions to their services. It is worth noting that the attacks did not originate from Albanian IP addresses [2].

AKCESK is actively working to identify the source of these attacks and implement necessary security measures [2]. An Iranian hacker group known as Homeland Justice has claimed responsibility for the attacks [2] [3] [4] [5]. They have also claimed to have hacked Air Albania, the flag carrier airline [1] [2] [4]. It is important to mention that these recent attacks are not isolated incidents, as there were previous cyber attacks on Albanian government services in 2022 [1] [4], also claimed by Homeland Justice.

As a response to these attacks [1], the US government has imposed sanctions on Iran’s Ministry of Intelligence and Security and its Minister of Intelligence [1] [2] [4] [5]. However, the exact scale and scope of the recent attacks remain unknown [1].


The cyber attacks on Albania have raised concerns about the country’s cybersecurity infrastructure and its ability to protect critical information systems. The fact that these attacks were not classified as critical infrastructure highlights the need for enhanced security measures across all sectors. It is crucial for Albania to continue strengthening its cybersecurity capabilities and collaborate with international partners to mitigate future threats. Additionally, the retaliatory nature of these attacks emphasizes the importance of diplomatic efforts to address underlying tensions and prevent further escalation in cyberspace.